The Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), also called Holly Oak or Evergreen Oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. Spanish named "las encinas", it is a member of the white oak section of the genus, with acorns that mature in a single summer.
It is a medium-size tree 20-27 m tall with finely square-fissured blackish bark and leathery evergreen leaves. The old leaves fall 1-2 years after new leaves emerge. The leaves are dark green above, and pale whitish-grey with dense short hairs below. The leaf shape is variable, the adult leaves are entire, 4-8 cm long and 1-3 cm broad, while those on the lower branches of young trees are often larger (to 10 cm long), and are toothed or somewhat spiny. This is presumed to be for protection from grazing animals. In this, the foliage resembles that of the common European Holly Ilex aquifolium, and this resemblance has led to its common and botanic names. The name ilex is originally the classical Latin name for the Holm Oak, but was later also used as a botanical genus name for the hollies. The flowers are catkins, produced in the spring; the fruit is an acorn, which matures in about 6 months.
The Holm Oak is one of the top three trees used in the establishment of truffle orchards, or truffieres. Truffles grow in an ectomychorrizal association with the tree's roots.
Height: 400 - 450 cm/ Width: 200 - 220 cm
450 - 500 cm/ Width: 250 - 270 cm